New calculations suggest Jupiters core may be liquefying

first_imgJupiter. Photo courtesy of NASA (PhysOrg.com) — Jupiter, the largest planet in our solar system, may be causing its own core to liquefy, at least according to Hugh Wilson and colleague Burkhard Militzer of UC, Berkeley. They’ve come to this conclusion after making quantum mechanical calculations on the conditions that exist within the big planet. In a paper published on the preprint server arXiv, and submitted to Physical Review Letters, the two explain that because the gas giant has a relatively small core made of mostly iron, rock (partly magnesium oxide) and ice, and sits embedded in fluid hydrogen and helium all under great pressure from the planet’s gravity (which has created very high temperatures (16,000 K)), there is a likelihood that the core is liquefying due to the heat and pressure exerted on the magnesium oxide. Researchers moving closer to a soluble solution to Haber-Bocsh process Citation: New calculations suggest Jupiter’s core may be liquefying (2011, December 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-12-jupiter-core-liquefying.html © 2011 PhysOrg.com This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Study finds mimicry increased in scarlet kingsnake snake after disappearance of coral

first_imgAdult Scarlet King Snake, Florida Locale. Credit: G-Bartolotti/ Wikipedia SKCC BY-SA 3.0 Coral snakes are venomous, as most people are aware. They’re also one of the more identifiable of the venomous snakes due to their unique black, yellow and red bands along the length of their body. Scarlet kingsnakes on the other hand, are not venomous. Instead they are Batesian mimics, a term used to describe harmless creatures that mimic the appearance of those that are dangerous in the hopes that they will be mistaken for them by predators and be left alone. Both types of snakes once lived in the North Carolina Sandhills area, which allowed the scarlet kingsnake to become a mimic of the coral snake. But, something unexpected happened around 1960 that caused the coral snakes to disappear from the area—no one knows why, but it left the kingsnakes without a model to copy.With no examples to emulate, Akcali and David Pfennig figured that kingsnakes would likely have lost some of their mimicry over the past half century. To find out if they were right, the obtained samples of coral snakes captured before they disappeared and compared them with samples of kingsnakes captured at various times since then. To their surprise, they found that the sudden disappearance of the coral snake had caused the kingsnakes to look even more like them, not less.In hindsight, the research duo suggest that had they given the situation more thought, they might have predicted what they found. They note that as the numbers of coral snakes started to decline, those kingsnakes that looked less like coral snakes likely suddenly became targets of predators, while those that looked more like the venomous snakes survived, leading to a quick evolutionary change. They suggest that the trend will not continue long, however, as time passes and predators either forget what coral snakes looked like or become bolder during lean times and overcome their fear of them. Citation: Study finds mimicry increased in scarlet kingsnake snake after disappearance of coral snake (2014, June 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-06-mimicry-scarlet-kingsnake-snake-coral.html Ah, spring . . . and a snakebite alert Journal information: Biology Letters (Phys.org) —A pair of research biologists has found that a harmless snake that mimics a dangerous snake increased its mimicry after the dangerous snake disappeared from one local area. In their paper published in the journal Biology Letters, Christopher Akcali and David Pfennig of the University of North Carolina describe their findings in studying snakes in the North Carolina Sandhills and their surprise at discovering how one adapted to the demise of the other.center_img © 2014 Phys.org Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Rapid evolution of mimicry following local model extinction, Biology Letters, Published 11 June 2014 DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2014.0304AbstractBatesian mimicry evolves when individuals of a palatable species gain the selective advantage of reduced predation because they resemble a toxic species that predators avoid. Here, we evaluated whether—and in which direction—Batesian mimicry has evolved in a natural population of mimics following extirpation of their model. We specifically asked whether the precision of coral snake mimicry has evolved among kingsnakes from a region where coral snakes recently (1960) went locally extinct. We found that these kingsnakes have evolved more precise mimicry; by contrast, no such change occurred in a sympatric non-mimetic species or in conspecifics from a region where coral snakes remain abundant. Presumably, more precise mimicry has continued to evolve after model extirpation, because relatively few predator generations have passed, and the fitness costs incurred by predators that mistook a deadly coral snake for a kingsnake were historically much greater than those incurred by predators that mistook a kingsnake for a coral snake. Indeed, these results are consistent with prior theoretical and empirical studies, which revealed that only the most precise mimics are favoured as their model becomes increasingly rare. Thus, highly noxious models can generate an ‘evolutionary momentum’ that drives the further evolution of more precise mimicry—even after models go extinct.last_img read more

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China comes calling

Tourism in China has greatly expanded in the last few decades since the beginning of reforms. It has a large number of wonderful tourist destinations.With all this in mind, the China Happy and Healthy Tour was kicked off, serving as a platform for other countries to get an insight into China. The event, hosted by China National Tourism Administration and Chinese Embassy at the DLF Promenade on 22 September, showcased the colourful culture and rich tourism resources in different parts of China.The convention also served as a golden opportunity for tourism communities of two countries — ­India and China — to interact with each other and explore the respective tourism markets in order to expand and enhance business.‘China and India, as two close neighbours, enjoy long- standing good relationship in the history characterised by friendly exchanges.  China owes its Buddhism culture to India and India draws inspirations from Chinese products like tea, porcelain and silk. The exchanges have deeply enriched our respective cultures and become an unfailing driving force for evolution of two great civilisations,’ said HE Zhang Yan, Chinese Ambassador to India.In recent years, in the domain of tourism, bilateral co-operation between the two countries has been expanding rapidly. ‘Today over 40 flights shuttle between China and India every week. The Chinese first stop visits to India has reached 1.3 lakh, increasing by more than 20 per cent over 2010,’ he added. read more

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The policies of state and loss of soul

first_imgSunday evening saw Shashi Tharoor all charged up, despite suffering from a little cold, to interact with an auditorium filled with people about his latest book Pax Indica, a seminal work on India’s foreign policy. The evening hosted the fourth edition of Books & Authors, where Tharoor was featured to educate the audience and discuss with them the intricacies described in his manuscript.The well known author, veteran UN official and diplomat, and currently the Union Minister of state for HRD, Tharoor, graced his presence at CSOI Complex where the book was introduced by Ujjwal Singh Bhatia, who was till recently India’s ambassador to the WTO at Geneva. The evening of interactive session was moderated by Sanjeev Chopra, the current Joint Secretary in the Ministry of Agriculture. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Pax Indica, or the Indian peace, is the thirteenth feather in the cap of the author-diplomat turned politician Tharoor. The author’s basic hypothesis is that India can use a combination of her size, trade prowess, soft power and growing influence in the world to ensure an age of domestic transformation. As far as Tharoor is concerned, Pax Indica is a foreign policy that allows India to play a role in developing a contemporary ‘peace system’ that will help ‘promote and maintain a period or co-operative co-existence’. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixPax Indica has been written with precision, clarity and an idea to introduce the concept of India’s Foreign Policy.Tharoor who emphasises upon India’s need to ‘cultivate good relations with countries that can assist’ us in his manuscript and thus in the process become ‘partners in our fundamental objective of keeping our people safe, secure and free’ goes some distance in explaining the seeming contradictions in India’s foreign policy.It is commendable, Tharoor said, ‘The book ensures to draw the attention of readers to the neglected Indian Foreign Service and weaves the past problems encountered by various Ministers and the laxity on the part of successive governments although he himself is a part of the system.’ He added that the book is about India and India’s position in the world. The last few chapters discuss on forward looking will the initial chapters talk about the present situation.During the interaction, Tharoor also cited few of the instances about the present political system and said that politicians by and large tend not to think beyond the next election. He even said, ‘We made our new policy with our head and not our heart and in the process we have lost our soul.’last_img read more

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Learn it from the expert

first_imgThe Capital witnessed the launch of SV Krishnamurthy’s book At The Helm on Monday at India International Centre. Krishnamurthy, the former chairman of SAIL, launched the book amidst an audience comprising of public sector employees, ex-employees, dignitaries and guests. The program started with a welcome note by the publisher of Harper Collins. After the welcome message, the speaker CS Verma, CMD, SAIL spoke on life history of V Krishnamurthy, followed by Balyan, CEO of NDMC spoke about Krishnamurthy expressing his gratitude and appreciation. B Prasadda Rao, BHEL President and Athaiya spoke next. Following this the chief guest at the event, V Venugopal Reddy, IAS and ex Governor of RBI, launched the book. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’‘The book is valuable because it captures both macro and micro analysis of the economy. It is all about path breaking initiatives management principles and practices that will be useful to the new age managers employed in both public and private sectors. It is based on the concepts and ideas used in manufacturing and other industry’s scenario. Basically it is a narrative story of leadership and success and I hope readers find it useful and are able to utilize the ideas in application efficiently’, said Krishnamurthy, talking about At The Helm.The dignitaries gathered at the launch spoke fondly about the author and talked about his contributions to the field and the guidance given by Krishnamurthy to numerous SAIL employees in his long, illustrious career. The event ended with thank you speeches by some of the special guests present at the event.last_img read more

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Shah panel begins stakeholder deliberation on FII MAT issue

first_imgThe high-level Justice A P Shah panel, set up to look into levy of MAT on FIIs, has begun consultations with stakeholders including an industry body which said it should not apply on such investors.The committee met representatives of Ficci, CII, Assocham and American Chamber of Commerce (Amcham) as well as experts from KPMG, EY and Deloitte.It is scheduled to hold further consultations with Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, Pricewaterhouse Coopers and other expert groups. Also Read – I-T issues 17-point checklist to trace unaccounted DeMO cashHeaded by Law Commission Chairman A P Shah, the panel was formally constituted in May with former Chief Economic Advisor Ashok Lahiri and Chartered accountant Girish Ahuja as other two members.In its representation to the committee, Assocham said the government should issue a clarification that Minimum Alternate Tax provisions were never intended and do not apply to FIIs/FPIs.“It is also requested (that you should) recommend to the Government to direct the Revenue authorities to stay the demand raised on FIIs/FPIs and not to take any coercive action, till the time the MAT issue is resolved.  Also Read – Lanka launches ambitious tourism programme to woo Indian tourists“The above action would be in accordance with the Government’s intention of providing a non-adversarial and stable tax regime to the taxpayer in India,” the chamber said.Although the Shah panel has one-year term, sources said the committee would submit its report on the MAT issue much earlier as the Finance Ministry is keen that it gives its recommendations “expeditiously”.The Shah committee has been entrusted with the task of examining MAT notices to the Foreign Institutional Investors for the period prior to April 1, 2015. The Income Tax Department had sent notices to 68 FIIs demanding Rs 602.83 crore as MAT dues of previous years. This has raked up a big controversy, with FIIs moving higher court challenging the demand.Finance Minister Arun Jaitley in Budget 2015-16 has exempted FIIs from paying MAT with effect from April 1, 2015.Following the announcement of setting up of the panel, the tax department has directed its field officers to put on hold issuance of fresh notices and any further assessments on levy of this tax on such entities.last_img read more

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Govt hikes limit of eway bill for intrastate movement to Rs 1

first_imgKolkata: State Finance and Industry minister Amit Mitra said on Thursday that the state government has increased the threshold limit to Rs 1 lakh for the electronic-way or e-way bill in case of movement of goods within the state, from the existing limit of up to Rs 50,000.He further announced that the generation of such bill for an intra-state movement of goods is being exempted, where goods are being sent to job workers.”The e-way bill with regard to movement of goods within the state originating and terminating within Bengal (intra-state movement but without passing through any other state), would be required where the consignment value exceeds Rs 1 lakh. Such limit is up to Rs 50,000 in other states. We have raised the limit keeping in mind the interest of our small traders,” Mitra said at the Kolkata Garment Expo 2018, organised by Bengal Readymade Garments Manufacturers and Traders Welfare Association. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedQuoting the notification that was issued by the Commissioner of State Tax, Bengal on Thursday, Mitra added: “Generation of e-way bill for an intra-state movement of goods is exempted where such goods are being sent to a job worker for job work, being sent from one job worker to another, or are being returned to the principal after such job work and where such transportation is not for final delivery of the finished goods.”It may be mentioned that the Central government had launched the e-way bill system from April 1, for moving goods worth over Rs 50,000 from one state to another and the same for intra or within the state movement was rolled out from April 15 in a phased manner. Such a bill is required when the value of taxable consignment, along with the tax value, is more than Rs 50,000. Also Read – Naihati: 10 councillors return to TMC from BJPThe Finance minister also announced a textile hub at Nangi in Maheshtala, South 24-Parganas, on a land of nine lakh sq ft, for facilitating garment manufacturers and traders and a common facility centre would also be set up.According to him, nearly 30,000 artisans and entrepreneurs, including organised and unorganised sectors, have been working in Metiabruz, a hub of garments and apparel manufacturing in the state that generates over 5 lakh jobs.Mitra reiterated that the Mamata Banerjee government is leaving no stones unturned to bring the unorganised sector under an organised set-up so that they get better margins and manufacture products of export standards.”The common facility centre will house design, laboratory and other facilities for facilitating the manufacturers,” Mitra added. In Metiabruz, 90 percent small entrepreneurs and artisans are unorganised.According to him, bank lending to MSMEs in the last year was Rs 44,000 crore, exceeding the target of Rs 38,000 crore in the state.last_img read more

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